HOME+GRDN HOME+GRDN Weekly Editor’s Review: Office Chair from the manufacturer

Many factors must be balanced in the closed system of an aquarium tank to ensure the success of an aquascape. Landscape architecture continues to develop as a design discipline, and to respond to the various movements in architecture and design throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. Landscape engineering builds on the engineering strengths of declaring goals, determining initial conditions, iteratively designing, predicting performance based on knowledge of the design, monitoring performance, and adjusting designs to meet the declared goals. Factors in designing include objective qualities; such as the climate and microclimates; topography and orientation, site drainage and groundwater recharge; municipal and resource building codes, soils and irrigation, human and vehicular access and circulation, recreational amenities (i.e.: sports and water), furnishings and lighting, native plant habitat botany when present, property safety and security, construction detailing, and other measurable considerations. It includes scientific disciplines: Agronomy, Botany, Ecology, Forestry, Geology, Geochemistry, Hydrogeology, and Wildlife Biology.

There can be significant overlap of talents and skills, depending on the education, licensing, and experience of the professional. It also draws upon applied sciences: Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, Engineering Geomorphology, landscape architecture, and Mining, Geotechnical, and Civil, Agricultural & Irrigation Engineering. The first person to write of making a landscape was Joseph Addison in 1712.

and Beatrix Jones (later Farrand) with others founded the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) in 1899. The most valuable contribution can be made at the first stage of a project to generate ideas with technical understanding and creative flair for the design, organization, and use of spaces. Both landscape designers and landscape architects practice landscape design. The combination of the tradition of landscape gardening and emerging city planning that gave Landscape Architecture its unique focus to serve these needs. Design project focus can tend towards: in landscape design – artistic composition and artisanship, horticultural finesse and expertise, and a detailed site involvement emphasis from concepts through construction; whereas in landscape architecture – focus of urban planning, city and regional parks, civic and corporate landscapes, large scale interdisciplinary projects, and delegation to contractors after completing designs. The combination of the tradition of landscape gardening and emerging city planning that gave Landscape Architecture its unique focus to serve these needs. Thomas Church was a mid-century landscape architect significant in the profession. The most valuable contribution can be made at the first stage of a project to generate ideas with technical understanding and creative flair for the design, organization, and use of spaces. This system became the foundation of today's Geographic Information Systems (GIS).